br Materials and methods br Results The baseline
Materials and methods
Results The baseline characteristics of cancer survivors, CDZ, and CNDZ are shown in Table 1. The distribution of marital status, education, household income, employment status, self-rated health status, family history of cancer, current smoking status, current drinking status, exercise, oral contraceptive use, and menopausal status (only for women), which were not included as matching variables, differed significantly between the three groups (p-value for all variables ≤ 0.05). Despite performing frequency matching, the mean age showed significant differences among the three groups; however, age distribution (5-year categories) was not significantly different among the three groups. Among cancer survivors, there were nearly three-fold more women compared to men (3951 vs. 1323). The cancer survivors included 758 gastric, 103 liver, 405 colorectal, 920 breast, 641 cervical, 111 lung, 942 thyroid, 90 prostate, 75 bladder, and 1369 other cancers (Fig. 1 and Table 1). A total of 1756 (33.3%) survivors underwent cancer treatment at the time of the survey. The mean time NCT-501 from diagnosis was 6.4 years (range, 0–23 years). Among them, about 50% were below the 5 years from the time of diagnosis, and 24% were 10 years and above from the time of diagnosis. The prevalence of MeS among cancer survivors (25.7%) was significantly higher than that of the CNDZ (18.8%) but lower than that of the CDZ (32.0%) (p < 0.001, Fig. 2). The most prevalent MeS components that met the MeS criteria were blood pressure and waist circumference. After adjusting for possible confounders (Table 2), the prevalence of MeS was significantly higher in cancer survivors by 1.56-fold (OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.45–1.69) compared to the prevalence in CNDZ. The prevalence of individual MeS components were also significantly higher in cancer survivors compared to those of the CNDZ (waist circumference OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07–1.25; elevated triglyceride OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.15–1.33; HDL-cholesterol OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.10–1.27; elevated blood pressure OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.40–1.60; elevated fasting glucose OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.34–1.56). ORs for MeS and its component in CDZ compared to CNDZ were ranged from 1.12 to 2.08. The results of the heterogeneity analysis between cancer survivors and CDZ suggested that the OR of MeS in cancer survivors was significantly lower than that of the CDZ. Thus, although the prevalence of MeS in cancer survivors was higher than that in the CNDZ, it was relatively lower than that in the CDZ (P-heterogeneity < 0.05). Analysis of the prevalence of MeS in survivors of colorectal, breast, cervical, lung, thyroid, prostate, and bladder cancer showed higher prevalence of MeS compared with that of the CNDZ (OR = 1.63, 1.73, 1.72, 2.11, 1.68, 2.24, and 2.13, respectively; 95% CI = 1.28–2.08, 1.45–2.07, 1.41–2.09, 1.33–3.36, 1.42–1.99, 1.37–3.65, and 1.25–3.61, respectively). The ORs for MeS were lower in gastric and liver cancer survivors, but the difference was not statistically significant. Survivors of breast, cervical, and prostate cancer showed significantly increased ORs for waist circumference compared to the CNDZ (OR range = 1.28–1.89). However, decreased OR for waist circumference was observed in gastric cancer survivors compared to that of the CNDZ (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.57–0.89). Survivors of breast, cervical, and thyroid cancers had a higher prevalence of elevated triglyceride levels than did the CNDZ (OR range = 1.37–1.60); whereas, the same component was lower in gastric and liver cancer survivors (OR = 0.64; CI = 0.52–0.79, OR = 0.43; CI = 0.24–0.79). The prevalence of reduced HDL-cholesterol levels in survivors of lung and thyroid cancers were higher than those of the CNDZ were (OR range = 1.48–1.64). An increased prevalence of elevated blood pressure was observed in survivors of colorectal, breast, cervical, thyroid, prostate, and bladder cancers compared to that of the CNDZ (OR range = 1.31–2.16). In addition, except for liver cancer survivors, the prevalence of elevated glucose levels were higher in all cancer type survivors—gastric, colorectal, breast, cervical, lung, thyroid, prostate, and bladder cancer—compared to the CNDZ (OR range = 1.25–2.07) (Table 3). The prevalence of MeS in each type of cancer is shown in Supplemental Table S2.